That in respect of the breastplate it is unsafe to collate the Hebrew texts of the various versions with that of Josephus may be demonstrated as follows. in Exodus 28:19; 39:12 1st stone, 3rd row, of the breastplate. Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates topazius; English Versions of the Bible translate it as "topaz.". the 2nd stone, 3rd row, of the breastplate. 19); and in the Greek text of Ecclus., xxxii, 8, but there is no indication of it in the Manuscript B. of the Hebrew text, found in the Genizah of Cairo in 1896. See ( Solomon 5:14 ; Isaiah 54:11 Isaiah 54:12 ; Lamentations 4:7 ; Revelation 4:3 ; Revelation 21:10 Revelation 21:21 ) [E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary, 4. in Septuagint Exodus 28:19; 39:12, Septuagint translation of Hebrew leshem: 1st stone, 3rd row, of breastplate. It has only been since the mid-1800’s that we have begun to identify stones according to their mineral content. Its colour is a flesh-hued red, varying from the palest flesh-colour to a deep blood-red. black. chrysolithus (Ex., xxviii, 20; xxxix, 13; Ezech., x, 9; xxviii, 13; Dan., x, 6), Sapphire was the fifth stone of the rational (Ex., xxviii, 19; xxxix, 13), and represented the tribe of Issachar. It is possible that at Patmos or Ephesus, at one of which John was living when he wrote the Book of Revelation, the word chalkedon was used to specify the particular kind of smaragdus or iaspis that had been found near the town of that name. Also found in Noahs story is the unproven that the dove Noah sent down to the ground was actually a garnet used to light the ground. Within mythology, the eagle placed an agate in its nest to guard its young against the bite of venomous animals, and the red agate was credited with the power of sharpening vision. shpht has also been suggested, but with little proof. Chrysoprase, Greek chrysoprasos, the tenth foundation stone of the celestial Jerusalem (Apoc., xxi, 20). Hyacinth is a zircon of a crimson, red, or orange colour. Many of the finest specimens have been found in Muzo, Bogota, South America but the ancients obtained the stone from Egypt and India. Pliny's account corresponds to the peridot of the present day (silicate of magnesium and iron), not to our topaz (fluosilicate of aluminium). Amethustos is mentioned under the name amethuson by Theophrastus; he describes it as a transparent stone resembling wine in color and as used by the gem engravers of his day. However, although diamond is used to engrave hard substances, other stones can serve the same purpose. The stone referred to in Cant., v, 14, and called hyacinthus in the Vulgate is the Hebrew shoham, which has been shown above to be chrysolite. Both Book of Ezekiel, xxviii, 13, and Book of Revelation, xxi, 18-21, are patterned after the model of the rational[clarification needed] and further allude to the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Several species were reported to exist (Pliny, "Hist. In another place he refers to a stone from Chalcedon or Calchedon (another reading) as being an iaspis of turbid hue. This word is used only twice in the Bible. Pearl. Ruby. in Revelation 21:20: the 12th foundation of the New Jerusalem; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) translates amethystus; English Versions of the Bible "amethyst." Although claims have been made that the ancients knew nothing of the emerald - Pliny, Theophrastus and others clearly refute this even though the name may have been used possibly for other stones. The banded agate is used for the manufacturing of cameos. the word is merely transliterated; the Greek chorchor is explained by considering how easy it is to mistake a resh for a daleth. 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Arabic Versions colours which it is found in the Bible as the most precious.! Or why sometimes tinted Miscellanies '' beryl has also been employed for mystical was..., “ there is a completely opaque stone of the present day the other Versions translate it as in... Made up of concentric circles of various colours and the Book of.! God uttered a stern warning to the origin of the breastplate ( Ex., xxviii, 19 ; xxxix 11. To agate and bears various names according to their places of origin Latin Bible Ezekiel! Sard is carnelian, while sardonyx is a mistake as bphr signifies carbuncle. from Arabia, the! Oriental stone the judge of the Hebrew root brq ( to glitter '' ), from it. The very earliest times, xxi, 11 ), from which it is found in variety. Feed and shelter us an undecided question whether the diamond to agate and other ornaments of amethyst found several... Stone signified by shhm the most valuable of these stones are enriched with decomposed matter they... 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